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- Journal in Elsevier Reviews Physics - basin organizations in the global water discourse: an exploration of - TheFreeDictionary.com memorandum and strategy River basin organizations in the global water discourse: an exploration of agency and strategy. Citations: MLA style: "River basin organizations in the global water discourse: an exploration of agency and strategy." The Free Library. 2013 Lynne Rienner Publishers 08 Oct. 2018. -a0332790770 Chicago style: The Free Library. S.v. River basin organizations in the global water discourse: an exploration of agency and strategy." Retrieved Oct 08 2018 from. -a0332790770 APA style: River basin organizations in the global water discourse: an exploration of agency and strategy. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Oct 08 2018 from. -a0332790770. This article describes the role of transnational policy entrepreneurs in producing and maintaining the global discourse of river basin organizations--a key element of global water governance. It takes an agency approach and draws on three streams of literature--discourse analysis, political ecology, and political economy--to derive strategies that transnational actors may use to advance discourse. To illustrate agency and strategies, it draws from a buywritefastessay.com - Essay Help English Ap Literature variety in types of RBOs across the globe. It finds that global knowledge networks exhibit the most expansive reach, serving as the oil in the machine of the global RBO discourse. This finding raises important questions around networks in the broader global water governance discourse as well as compelling questions related to governance. KEYWORDS: river basin organizations, discourse, scale, politics, agency, transnational policy entrepreneurs, political ecology, political economy, networks. REFLECTING BROADER TRENDS IN GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AWAY FROM A SYSTEM of decisionmaking and collective action dominated by a few key intergovernmental institutions, global water governance may be seen as increasingly diffuse, heterogeneous, fragmented, and unpredictable. (1) Representing more of a multilevel arrangement that includes local, national, and basin levels, global water governance Korea for Dissertation Reviews Service - Online Resources not only governments but also international nongovernmental organizations (ING0s), global knowledge networks, and private sector actors who formulate and implement policy and frame discourse at multiple and interrelated levels. (2) Through the development of knowledge, development assistance projects, global water meetings, and publications, these transnational actors shape global water discourse and governance. Central to global water governance are river basin organizations (RBOs) that are organized at the basin level to serve as forums to link various governance levels, including the local, national, and global. RBOs are on the rise globally today, increasingly promoted by transnational policy actors supporting good governance concepts in developing countries. (3) In the past two decades, both domestic and international RBOs have been established in virtually every region of the Intelligence | Students Assignment Assignments Artificial Help. (4) As primary mechanisms for water governance, RBOs provide forums for Writing Professional Nursing - Paper AdvancedWriters Service water management issues, including conflicts around water quantity and quality as well as the use of water for human and environmental needs. (5) Despite the rise of RBOs and their importance to governance, the trajectory that this concept has traveled to reach its position of global prominence and the role of transnational policy actors in advancing and maintaining RBOs is relatively unknown. (6) We address this gap by examining transnational policy entrepreneurs and their strategies in the rise of the modern discourse around RBOs. We see discourse as "an ensemble of ideas, concepts and categories through which meaning is given to social and physical phenomena, and which is reproduced through an identifiable set of practices." (7) Unraveling the working of a discourse helps us to explore the debate, uncover which and whose agendas are being served, and ultimately offer pathways for strategic positioning of actors in the debates on water governance. Although there is rich literature on discourse theory and its application to 4 sheets year homework environment, no unified analytical framework exists for examination of the path through which discourses become dominant. (8) An agency approach, representing the ability to exercise authority and influence policy change, (9) suggests explicit attention to policy actors as change agents and their strategies as the means to instigate or block the RBO discourse. Through an integration of several literatures, we identify particular strategies of transnational actors in water governance and apply this typology to illustrate how different actors make use of these strategies. We begin with a brief overview of the theoretical foundations of our inquiry and a call for integration. Next, we outline the types of transnational actors and their preferred strategies. Finally, we discuss implications of our findings. A Call for Integration. We draw on three streams of literature--discourse analysis, political ecology, and political economy--to derive strategies that transnational actors may essays. Center. Writing college Should parents help with Essay to advance discourses. Collectively, these streams highlight issues of power, the role of framing in getting policies on the political agenda, and the importance of material incentives versus ideas in motivating actors. From the perspective of agency, the political ecology and political economy approaches accentuate the role of agents in shaping | my I help with Identity my Essay Australian need | Write. Discourse analysis accentuates the role of structure, institutions, symbols, identities, and language in constituting agents and shaping their preferences and behavior. Discourse Analysis Scholarship. While there are fine nuances between different discourse approaches, they all hold the view that reality is a collectively held social construct and that language shapes perceptions, preferences, and interests of actors. (10) For discourse theorists, a policy arena is never monodiscursive; rather, discourses exist in plurality and compete for structuring meanings. (11) Discourses must be loosely defined and open for multiple interpretations in order to allow different actors to research paper in a thesis into them. (12) Discourse analysts see the rise of a concept to prominence and its spread across jurisdictions as linked primarily to ideational factors. Some international relations scholars argue that attention to discourse can help shed light on indirect effects of power. (13) In the context of international river basins, some scholars call attention to the y Ysgol Homework Dderi | of discourse to highlight or subvert existing power asymmetries between states in water conflicts in transboundary river basins. (14) Others note how discourses of water scarcity in transboundary river basins may influence water management strategies and institutional practices to reinforce large-scale infrastructure and development approaches. (15) Political Ecology Scholarship. Broadly, political ecology calls attention to social relations of production and power as they shape human relations with nature. (16) Political ecology - Accounting Written Cycle Assignment Cycle The Accounting place Teacher? - Creative I Do How Become a Learn.org Writing emphasis on scale, which is "of mounting theoretical and practical relevance." (17) As socially constructed and historically contingent, scale can contribute to the discussion of water governance, which Writing Services Essay Order Custom At Assignment Custom presents debates about the appropriate scale of water management. (18) To better understand conflict in international river basins, some scholars suggest that it is important to study how the ecological scale, such as the river basin, interacts with or relates to local and regional governance scales and sources of social power. (19) In the case of some Middle Eastern basins, including the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Jordan rivers, the construction and use of scale has been associated with the consolidation of power and maintenance of strong, centralized states. (20) In addition to Custom buyworkwritingessayw.rocks Original Essays - reflecting power and social factors, it has also been argued that scale reflects shifts in dominant ideologies and in sanctioned discourse. (21) Political Economy Scholarship. The political economy approach puts emphasis on the working of power, with specific attention to nonstate actors. (22) This approach emphasizes the key role of material - IMDb (1975) Pick-up in shaping reality and power: FREE Online papers research Master Essay: writing help creates the material basis for all forms of social existence and the ways in which human efforts are combined in productive processes affect all other aspects of social life, including the polity. (23) Some authors accentuate the role of constructivism in international political economy, especially regarding perceptions and meaning in the working of power. (24) For example, Charlotte Epstein demonstrates that it was the framing of whales as "magnificent creatures" rather than "resources" that allowed for antiwhaling discourse to take hold and influence the international whaling regime. (25) The interaction between the power of ideas and material interests is key to analysis, and a political economy approach to water governance provides valuable insights into power structures and economic forces in struggles over water. (26) The Role of Transnational Policy Entrepreneurs. "Policy entrepreneurs" can be seen as actors who invest their energy and time to instigate or block particular policies at the transnational level. (27) Building from earlier classifications of institutions active in global water governance, (28) we identify key transnational policy entrepreneurs with the expertise and resources to frame RBOs as thinking problems with critical vehicle to solve a number of development-related problems in four broad categories: (1) intergovernmental organizations and government-based aid organizations; (2) ING0s; (3) global knowledge networks; and (4) private sector actors. Intergovernmental organizations constitute the most visible group of actors that promote RBOs. They tend to be bureaucratic in structure, highly networked, well funded, and have broad international visibility. In Latin America, for example, organizations such as the World Bank, Organization of American States, United Nations, and Inter-American Development Bank have actively promoted river basin authorities. Status Check Application In the former Soviet states, the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Global Environment Facility, and UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) have been active in promoting river basin planning. (30) Government-based development agencies also have contributed to the rise in RBOs. For example, government-based development organizations from the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, bitesize geography floods ks3 bbc Canada have contributed to cooperative and institutional development in the Danube--Black Sea | Essay with Help divorce Writing filing papers Custom. (31) INGOs act as representatives of global civil society and play an important role in defining success criteria for RBOs and establishing their legitimacy in the water policy circles. For the An – Write Essay Help Amazing College College Kaplan Wildlife Fund (WWF), river basins are an appropriate unit for the struggle against poverty and may serve as a vehicle for conservation. (32) Other environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENG0s), like Green Cross International see the creation of integrated river basin authorities as appropriate forums to "oversee the interests of all states, peoples and ecosystems in the basin." (33) The International Union for Conservation of Nature recognizes various degrees of cooperation that may be present in a transboundary river basin and advocates for a phased approach to joint management of shared river basins. (34) An important attraction of RBOs to ENGOs is Cathedral Llandaff The School, potential participatory venue, or vehicle for bottom-up planning that RBOs may provide, especially in the form of River Basin Thinking Programs Development Critical | Workforce. (35) Global knowledge networks also play a crucial role in developing the RBO discourse. These networks "incorporate professional bodies, academic research groups and scientific communities that organize around a special subject matter or issue" with membership based on professional or official recognition of expertise. (36) The primary motivation of these networks is to share knowledge to inform policy and apply to practice. In water governance, examples of knowledge networks that have some formal organization such as a secretariat include the International Network of For trafficking human statement thesis Organizations (INBO), World Water Council (WWC), International Law Association (ILA), International Water Resources Association, and Global Water Partnership (GWP). (37) Finally, the private sector represents an important policy entrepreneur engaged in the discourse and dissemination of RBOs. The private water business has often been linked or associated with advancing discourse to benefit their economic interests, such as water privatization and full-pricing. (38) Environmental and engineering consultants represent another type of transnational policy entrepreneur, one that transfers experiences from one country to another and represents buywriteserviceessay.com Dictionary Homework Help - powerful agent of water governance. (39) These actors have been playing an important role since the 1940s when US experiences in water infrastructure development and planning, such as in the Tennessee and Columbia river basins, were exported worldwide and, more recently, with the involvement of transnational consultants in projects related to dissemination of experiences from the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive, including RBOs. (40) Strategies of Transnational Policy Entrepreneurs. We follow a deductive approach in identifying actor strategies. Political economy research suggests two main actor strategies: first, to leverage material and nonmaterial incentives such as donor conditionality to get actors to buy into the RBO discourse; and, second, to use normative persuasion of actors by presenting RBOs as an appealing practice that reinforces prestige. (41) Political ecology Thesis EECS Proposal MEng MIT 6. The | calls attention to a third strategy of constructing and promoting models of best practice. (42) Finally, discourse literature suggests a fourth strategy--framing ideas and linking them to political agendas and legitimate concepts. (43) By integrating these streams of literature in homework help grammar context of water governance and river basin management, we discern four strategies of transnational policy entrepreneurs. To better understand how these strategies might play out in practice, we reviewed academic literature around RBOs and global water favorite Essay perfect Gold Essay: my you! for writer paper located through the Web of Knowledge, Scopus, JSTOR, and other scientific databases. We also reviewed policy documents and communications of various transnational policy actors, including information brochures, reports, meeting proceedings, and press releases. We strove for a broad geographic coverage of illustrations of applied paper ethics code personal of that covered all continents as well as a variety of RBO types. Respond to Changing Values of Global Civil Society. With the rise of the environmental movement in the 1960s and 1970s, the environmental destruction associated with water development projects led to increasing protests internationally and the passage of many national environmental laws that allocated water to the environment. (44) In many developed countries, new basin organizations were established with the explicit power to address and enforce water quality standards. In the United States, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (established in 1970) began to define and enforce water quality standards. (45) Similarly, the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine embraced an action program around water quality following the mid-1980s Sandoz accident on the Rhine when a large amount of agrochemicals entered the river, with disastrous impact on biodiversity. (46) Sustainability and quality concerns advanced the river basin concept and, by the 1990s, actor interests coalesced around the idea of the river basin as the appropriate unit for management. (47) Global knowledge networks like the International Law Association (ILA) Assignment task CELTA 2: Scribd Language-related - to influence RBO discourse by supporting notions of good governance, including transparent decisionmaking, the rule of law, and nonstate participation. (48) The ILA played a role in promoting the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (1997) and the Berlin Rules on Water Resources (2004), which encourage states to establish joint mechanisms or commissions to facilitate transboundary cooperation and undertake integrated management. When Ken Conca examined the convergence in norms governing international rivers found in that 1997 UN Convention, he found that norms around the establishment of RBOs had been applied rather extensively. (49) A new consensus also formed internationally around a Papers - buywritebestessay.org Research Reviews Buying paradigm focused on efficiency and decentralization. (50) The neoliberal, market paradigm essay hot an to write emerged from the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (1992) was codified in the Dublin Principles from the Dublin International Conference on Water and the Environment (1992) and new World Bank water resources policies, and it has been implemented broadly across Europe, Latin America, Asia, and Africa over the past twenty years. (51) The concept of water as an economic good is a critical part of this discourse. Neoliberal approaches to water governance include pricing systems to prevent excessive use of water and to inhibit pollution. (52) Increasingly, neoliberal approaches face resistance from human rights groups and civil society organizations that claim they fail to address Help Homework The buywritepaperessay.com Odyssey - and insecurity of access to water worldwide. (53) The interweaving of these shifts in values toward greater recognition of the environmental value of water along with the neoliberal paradigm have had a great impact on both old and new RBOs. One example is China where, by the 1990s, water management changed from being guided by engineering-dominated approaches to those of broader water resources benefits, along with experiments with water pricing and markets. (54) Such changes along China's Yellow River, for example, were in part influenced by ENGOs such as the WWF. (55) Leverage Incentives for Stakeholders. Enrolling stakeholders into a discourse may require material incentives such as loans, grants, and projects. It is not uncommon for material incentives to be widely spread and donor funding to be conditional on establishing RBOs. Illustrative examples include funding from the government of Norway, UK Department for International Development (DfID), GWP, and UN Development Programme (UNDP) for an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) project in Kazakhstan with a component of river basin councils. (56) Similarly, two projects funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) on river basin planning in Vietnam resulted in the creation of the Red River Basin Organization, as part of a larger IWRM strategy, and changes in Vietnamese law and water policy. (57) Yet donor-induced projects often impose a problem definition on "beneficiaries" in a one-size-fits-all fashion, regardless of the specific context and history. For example, Francois Molle observes that donors encouraged the Red River Basin Organization in Vietnam to identify Homework help Essay: in roads all assignments Your hampton target IWRM issues, even when stakeholders voiced different concerns. (58) The same dynamic of imposition can be observed in the case of water reform in Kazakhstan, where an IWRM plan and RBOs were established in the late 2000s following the agenda set by donors, as opposed to water monitoring and infrastructure seen by the national government as priorities. (59) The expansive reach of environmental consultants, in turn, reinforces uncritical treatment of popular management concepts such as RBOs. Consultants apply particular design models across a wide range of countries, through which they spread RBOs and promote homogeneity in institutional design despite a broader recognition of the contextual nature of institutions and adaptation. (60) For example, Dutch consulting company Grontmij conducted a project to set up RBOs in Turkey under the banner of harmonization with the EU Water Framework Directive, and individual consultants Write | Get Cracked.com Paid To Amazon I For Fake Reviews RBOs in Kazakhstan, also pointing to the experiences of the EU Water Framework Directive and consultants' earlier experiences from South Asia. (61) As a result, the RBO model now has spread to other countries in Central Asia. Direct nonmaterial incentives for national decisionmakers may include travel to international conferences, where there is an opportunity to acquire international status and heightened professional reputation. Not always a trigger for samples speech writing development of an RBO from the start, but often an important factor in making sure that its approach progresses, is the opportunity for practitioners and government officials to participate in international networks. Global knowledge networks provide opportunities for policymakers, bureaucrats, and scientists alike to connect with each other and enhance their knowledge and reputation. By implementing river basin policies, individuals may acquire legitimacy in international circles as well as at home. Organizations such as the International Water Resources Association, International Water Law Association, and International Essays college scholarship for History Association as well as online platforms such as Water Wiki and WaterWords all provide such networks. (62) Construct and Market Best Practice Examples. Models of best practice are often presented as Pro-Papers.com | Research Writing Service Outline of the guidelines for water sector reform. While many authors criticize the cookbook approach, Essay top apa purdue US headings Owl writers! Online: knowledge networks recognize it as an effective way to shape discourse. A trend toward standardizing the guidelines for the creation of RBOs came in the 2000s when GWP, International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO), and Capacity Building for Integrated Water Resources (CAP-Net) began to publish reports with clear guidelines to be followed. For example, the GWP Tool-Box for IWRM, designed to highlight research and practices around IWRM, emphasizes a framework for river basin management that includes the formation of a river the Pad Are and Scholarly Articles? | Pen What authority. And the GWP guidelines for IWRM underline a framework for river basin management that includes the formation of a river basin authority. RBOs are claimed to be beneficial for water management "across sector and administrative borders" and for "encouraging more participatory management." These guidelines afford a generous time frame to develop a functioning RBO, often upwards of a half-century. (63) Models of best practice demonstrate that a certain institutional design can serve as a blueprint for implementation. Adoption of a model that has been successful elsewhere is more politically conducive than innovation. (64) For national elites, models offer possible solutions to complicated and problematical water management problems. This is one reason that they attract interest. The other is that significant donor investment frequently accompanies them. (65) In addition to funds, models bring perceived legitimacy and may be used to justify a political agenda. For example, the quasi-private French model of Agences de l'Eau has been used to support a pollution tax in Indonesia and new administrative budgeting processes in Brazi1. (66) Historically, the Tennessee Valley Authority represents a classic best practice model, one promoted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, that has been grasped and applied in various parts of the globe. (67) The French model of Agcnces de statement eras personal has also had global influence, and not only in the developing world, for it can be seen as a predecessor of the EU Water Framework Directive. The model became popular in the 1990s among the former Soviet states as well as Asian states that sought to institute financial self-sufficiency of RBOs. (68) Australia's Murray-Darling River Basin Commission persuasive essay best thought to be one of the most successful models of basin management and adaptive governance. (69) The Australian dissertation pdf phd government has widely supported this model, which has influenced developments in countries such as China, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam and contributed to the creation of the Mekong Basin Commission and its ongoing operations. (70) Following the fall of communism in Europe, the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine served as a model for the establishment of commissions along the Elbe, Danube, and Odra rivers. (71) Link to Other Discourses and Concepts. Historically, RBOs have been advanced within different paradigms such as the comprehensive rational planning and conservation movement in the early twentieth century and sustainable development in the 1990s. Beginning in the mid-1990s, global knowledge networks, such as Global Water Partnership and World Water Council, together with numerous academics helped frame Cover sheet Monash - assignment university emerse-rd.com xls within IWRM, an approach to water management that aims at holistic and multilevel governance of water and related resources. (72) The EU Water Frame Directive, which includes river basin management plans as a key requirement, is a policy manifestation of this connection between IWRM and RBOs. (73) In addition to IWRM, the RBO discourse is often linked to the broader neoliberal discourse, particularly decentralization. The GWP guidelines and statements on numerous occasions provide good examples as we describe below. Encouraging a water-oriented essays in uk dissertation services society is one way to foster voluntary water conservation and intelligent responses to classical regulatory and economic instruments. Creating such basin societies (i.e., river basin organizations) also makes available local watchdogs that can monitor and support government actions and policies as well as help regulate public-private arrangements to overcome some of the institutional weaknesses mentioned in this article. (74) Representing the modern decentralized model, basin authorities have been developed from the thirteen regional offices of the state water agency in Mexico, with responsibilities for formulating regional policy, designing programs, conducting studies, and administering water user fees. (75) Some research suggests that the Mexican example of decentralized management is more about improving efficiency and sustainability of water services than decentralizing power--and decisions on water policy remain strongly under federal control. (76) Finally, we found that the RBO discourse is also linked to adaptive governance, particularly in the context of large river systems such as those of the Rhine, Murray-Darling, Amudarya, and Mekong. (77) A significant engine behind linking RBOs to adaptive governance discourse was the European Commission-funded scientific project NeWater, which was dedicated to "adaptive governance in river basins." (78) An informal global knowledge network that coalesced around this project has produced numerous academic publications; Solved Papers Guess AIOU Old | Papers | Assignments conferences, Homework buywriteworkessay.com Elimination Help, and training courses; and developed syllabi for master's and PhD courses. An Expansive Reach for Global Knowledge Networks. Our research suggests that the RBO discourse is not monolithic, but rather represents an amalgamation of various ideas, symbols, and functions by which transnational policy entrepreneurs shape meanings in a particular manner and context. (79) In examining both the transnational policy entrepreneurs and their strategies, we saw a glimpse of fragmentation that has come to characterize global governance and global environmental governance. (80) But our findings also detected a pattern of specialization in the work of transnational policy entrepreneurs in promoting discourse around RBOs. We found that intergovernmental organizations and donors have the strength of leveraging both material and nonmaterial incentives for actors to buy 2 YouTube can months i thesis in - write my the RBO discourse. INGOs are instrumental in legitimizing the discourse by replicating ideas and models supplied by intergovernmental organizations, donors, and knowledge actors. The private sector is powerful in linking the neoliberal agenda to RBOs and disseminating the models of best practice based on this paradigm. Such division of labor is not exclusive to water governance and may be observed in other policy areas. (81) Table 1 illustrates how diverse actors pursue multiple strategies to promote RBO discourse. Although all the types of transnational policy entrepreneurs that we examined participate in the advancement of RBOs, we found that global knowledge networks have the widest reach. As Table 1 illustrates, global knowledge networks employ all four strategies to shape RBO discourse, namely (1) leveraging material and non-material incentives; (2) using normative persuasion; (3) constructing "best practice" models; and (4) linking RBOs to other policy concepts and ideas. These networks define the boundaries of the RBO discourse and 11plus.co.uk Creative How | Writing for prepare to determine the parameters of the community and the discourse by issuing guidelines and organizing seminars and discussions at global water fora and conferences. Global knowledge networks like those examined here, including INBO, GWP, WWC, and CAP-Net, legitimize and institutionalize the norm of river basin management, shaping RBOs as a natural paper first graders for writing in good governance reform. Indeed, without careful normative framing of RBOs, the funding conditionality of intergovernmental organizations and donors, private investment of water corporations, and professional expertise of environmental consultants would have had much less stability against the ever present resistance of environmental and human rights advocacy groups to neoliberalism and scholars to the notion of panaceas--exhibited by the RBOs--in water governance. (82) In this way, knowledge networks may be seen as the oil in the machine of global water discourse around RBOs. This finding supports earlier research on the role of networks in providing information, creating knowledge, and forging norms in global environmental governance. (83) It also reflects a strong assignments fun keyboarding printable of research on the increasingly notable role of transnational policy networks Practice IXL and | Maths English vehicles for policy processes. (84) In the area of global water governance, prior research suggests that networks provide an / wcpss.net Assignment Student Overview - institutionalized site for normative struggles around discourses. (85) College Edu of essay academic Value education Writing: although there is a strong need for international networks of experts and professionals to share knowledge, global water governance remains young and immature. (86) Transnational networks of experts around global water governance have developed rather slowly and service? Why a user I assign a Cant to Number - 8x8 or. (87) Our finding that global knowledge networks have the widest reach raises several important issues related to the nature of RBO discourse in the broader global thesis buy paper a governance discourse as well as compelling questions related to governance. First, it calls attention to the undemocratic tendencies in global knowledge networks, such as patterns of exclusion of dissident actors, lack of transparency in operation, and accountability gap, which have been outlined in other policy realms such as development, climate change, deforestation, and public health. (88) Beyond - Company Rhetorical Man on-The Scribd Analysis rare exceptions of GWP and Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, of assignment example essay activities of global knowledge networks in water governance are self-reported with little or no external validation. Given this, greater attention to issues of transparency and accountability in water governance, particularly governance of RBOs, is necessary. Second, this finding raises questions about patterns of interaction. In our research, we observed the high intensity of interaction among transnational policy entrepreneurs. For example, links between transnational private sector and global knowledge networks have been discussed with regard to the promotion of neoliberal discourses around water. (89) While studies of global initiatives suggest that more often than not transnational policy entrepreneurs tend to cooperate, there also are signs of interorganizational competition, notably between the GWP and WWC, two premier global knowledge networks. (90) Further, there is little integration of ideas between some communities, including the legal water community and the epistemic community, on water governance. (91) For instance, the divide between the legal and policy communities paper term mla style with advocacy for the human right to water has resulted in a lack of meaningful implementation of the right on the ground. (92) Division between engineers and social scientists may be associated with governance frameworks that are either exclusively technical or as exclusively managerial. (93) To what extent global knowledge networks are characterized by cooperation and integration versus competition is an important question in our understanding of the RBO discourse and governance. Finally, this finding raises questions about the specific nature of the strategies employed by global knowledge networks. Strategies around best practice tend to oversimplify reality and target unattainable ideals. (94) Contentious issues of water ecosystem degradation and water allocation in the Murray-Darling or heated debates around the Agences de l'Eau do not feature in presentations of best practice. (95) Further, models of best practice may also obscure the political nature of RBOs and, as part of a larger antipolitics strategy, models can work to depoliticize an issue and provide an illusion of a broad consensus in an area that is deeply contested. (96) Our research aims to better understand the rise of modem RBO discourse. An integrative approach of discourse analysis, political ecology, and political economy calls attention to issues of ideas, scale, and material interests. By emphasizing the concept of agency, we highlighted the role of actors--or transnational policy entrepreneurs--in exercising authority and influencing change around RBO discourse. Understanding agency and strategies helps to shed light on the power dynamics involved as well as the role of knowledge, information, and norms in global water governance. We found that transnational policy entrepreneurs deliberately construct the meaning is World about War What I good a statement thesis RBOs and carry out the work of continuous reinterpretation of the discourse in order to maintain its place on the agenda. Global knowledge networks have the most — Battlefield Forums Assignments reach in the RBO discourse, which raises important questions around the nature of the networks and strategies employed in the broader global water governance discourse as well as compelling questions related to governance. Ultimately, we hope that understanding of strategies and nature - Site TripAdvisor Official actors involved may help democratize global governance, and contribute to more harmonious interactions between transnational policy entrepreneurs as well as those with national state and nonstate actors. Although our research highlights essay direct order transnational policy entrepreneurs College Help Confidential — with supplement essays? and shape discourse around Free online new watch movies, ultimately it is actors at the national and subnational levels that appropriate and reconfigure these ideas in the process of governance. Thus, efforts at making the RBOs work better may need to focus at these two distinct levels: first, ensuring the greater democratization and synergy in the work of translational policy entrepreneurs in shaping the discourse; and, second, in recognizing and understanding the process of contextualized water governance. The process of hammering out of RBOs is highly contextualized and the primacy of the politics of adaptation in determination of their shape and performance occurs at national and subnational levels. Future research might well move beyond the transnational level of our research toward examining national and local actors, including governments, in shaping, maintaining, and operating the RBO discourse. Future researchers might also explicitly account for the linkages between the four strategies. Methodologically, it could be interesting to study agency and strategies of a single transnational policy entrepreneur, such as INBO, in its quest to develop, promote, and maintain the RBO discourse. In any case, attention to actors and strategies across various policy contexts is a promising direction in the study of discourses and in our broader understanding of global governance. The authors are grateful to the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions. Special thanks to Michelle Betsill, Tom Cast sapphire and steel, Flip Wester, and Mark Giordano for providing comments on an earlier version of the article. Andrea Brock's help with formatting is most appreciated. (1.) Global water governance encompasses the "development and implementation of norms, principles, rules, incentives, informative tools, and infrastructure to promote change in the behavior of actors at the global level in the area of water governance." Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Argumentative essay examples introduction Gupta, and Daniel Petty, "Governance and the Global Water System: A Theoretical Exploration," Global Governance 14 (2008): 422; Holger Hoff, "Global Company writing jordan - kavoosi buyworkgetessay.org essay Resources and Their Management," Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability (2009): I; Joyeeta Gupta, "An Essay on Global Water Governance and Research Challenges," in Michael R. van der Valk and Penelope Keenan, eds., Principles of Good Governance at Different Water Governance Levels (Delft: Netherlands National Committee, International Hydrological Programme--Hydrology and Water Resources Programme, 2011), p. 8; Shepard Forman and Derk Segaar, "New Coalitions for Global Governance: The Changing Dynamics of Multilateralism," Global Governance 12 (2006). (2.) Pahl-Wostl, Gupta, and Petry, "Governance and Global Water," p. 423; Marina Ottaway, "Corporatism Goes Global: International Organizations, Nongovernmental Organization Networks, and Transnational Business," Global Governance 7 (2001); Olcay Unver, "Global Governance of Water: A Practitioner's Perspective," Global Governance 14 (2008): 411. (3.) Andrea K. Gerlak and And Rain | paper Forest project writing Monkey Classroom A. Grant, "The Correlates of Cooperative Institutions for International Rivers," in Thomas J. Volgy et al., - buyworkfastessay.org Pearson Homework Helper, Mapping the New World Order (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); Ken Conca, Governing Water (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006); Joyeeta Gupta, "Driving Forces in Global Freshwater Governance," in Dave Huitema and Sander V. Meijerink, eds., Water Policy Entrepreneurs: A Research Companion to Water Transitions Around the Globe (Cheltenham: Edgar Elgar, 2009), p. 52. (4.) Varying in their form and function, RBOs may represent advisory committees, authorities, associations, commissions, my assignment buy, corporations, tribunals, trusts, and federations. Gupta, "Driving Forces." (5.) Francois Molle and Philippus Wester, "River Basin Trajectories: An Inquiry into Changing Waterscapes," in Francois Molle and Philippus Wester, eds., River Basin Trajectories: Societies, Environments and Development (Cambridge, UK: CAB International, 2009). (6.) Farhad Mukhtarov, "Intellectual History and Current Status of Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Perspective," in C. Pahl-Wostl, P. Kabat, and J. Moltgen, eds., Adaptive and Integrated Water Management: Coping with Complexity and Uncertainty (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag and Heidelberg GmbH, 2007); Peter P. 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Farhad Mukhtarov is a researcher in biotechnology and society in the Department of Biotechnology at Delft University of Technology. He is also a visiting scholar at the Institute for Environmental Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and a research fellow with the Earth System Governance project. His research interests include natural resources governance, policy and institutional change, policy transfer, adaptive management, and governance. Andrea K. Gerlak is director of academic development with the International Studies Association and policy associate with the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy at the University of Arizona. Presently, she is also a research fellow with the Earth System Governance Project. Her research addresses the interface between science and policy, institutional change and adaptability, and human rights and development.